VITAMINS AND MINERALS

Your body’s ability to absorb and utilize various vitamins and minerals is - in large part - controlled by your underlying genetic factors. By learning more about your body’s response, you can maximize the benefit you get from vitamins and minerals.

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Vitamins

Coenzyme Q10 deficiency

Coenzyme Q10 deficiency

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a fat-soluble natural compound primarily synthesized by the body. It is also consumed in the diet. Coenzymes generally help enzymes to ensure biochemical reactions run smoothly. CoQ10 is found in every cell of the body as it is needed for basic cellular functions. Cell mitochondria requires CoQ10 to produce energy for cell growth and maintenance. CoQ10 is present in higher concentrations in organs with higher energy requirements such as the kidneys, liver, and heart. Cellular CoQ10 also functions as an antioxidant. Taking a combination of nutrients that include CoQ10 has been found to benefit patients with cardiovascular disorders, including quicker recovery from surgeries. Studies identified common genetic variants that are significantly associated with Q10 levels. One of the tested genetic variations is in the NQO1 gene that helps to convert CoQ10 to a a bioavailable form, ubiquinol. People with genetic variations in the NQO1 gene may not be able to make that transformation. According to the Mayo clinic, CoQ10 levels decline gradually with age. In addition, some prescription drugs may lower CoQ10 levels. Rare genetic defects that cause primary CoQ10 deficiency (which is a severe disorder that severely compromises neuronal and muscular function), are not tested by Lifenome.

VITAMIN A (CAROTENE) DEFICIENCY

VITAMIN A (CAROTENE) DEFICIENCY

Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin essential for proper immune system functions, reproduction, red blood cell production, tissue repair, skin health, vision, and maintenance of strong bones and teeth. Carotenoids are important antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents and have enormous protective benefits for heart conditions, respiratory problems, elevated glucose levels, and other conditions.

VITAMIN A (RETINOL) DEFICIENCY

VITAMIN A (RETINOL) DEFICIENCY

Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin essential for proper immune system functions, reproduction, red blood cell production, tissue repair, skin health, vision, and maintenance of strong bones and teeth. Some specific immune, inflammatory, genetic, and reproductive-related benefits of vitamin A can only be obtained from the retinoid forms of vitamin A. These retinoid forms can be especially important for pregnancy and childbirth, infancy, childhood growth, and resistance to infectious diseases.

VITAMIN B1 DEFICIENCY

VITAMIN B1 DEFICIENCY

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) is involved in many enzyme functions related to the metabolism of carbohydrates and fatty acids. Thiamine imbalances can result from poor dietary intake, reduced gastrointestinal absorption, increased metabolic requirements, or excessive loss of thiamin due to genetic variations. Severe Vitamin B1 deficiencies are rare (except in critically ill people and alcoholics) and they are associated with genetic diseases such as maple syrup urine disease and beriberi.

VITAMIN B2 DEFICIENCY

VITAMIN B2 DEFICIENCY

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is required for the normal functioning of the brain, nervous and digestive systems, as well as red blood cell formation. It is involved in DNA synthesis, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolism. Slight imbalances in vitamin B-12 can lead to anemia, fatigue, stomach inflammation, and affect the nervous system.

VITAMIN B3 DEFICIENCY

VITAMIN B3 DEFICIENCY

Vitamin B3 (niacin or nicotinic acid) is essential for the normal functioning of digestive and nervous systems, dealing with oxidative stress, DNA repair, and skin health. It is important in the metabolism of fat, carbohydrates, and alcohol. Severe niacin deficiencies are rare and are usually found in areas of malnutrition. Several genetic variants are associated with an increased risk of niacin imbalances.

VITAMIN B5 DEFICIENCY

VITAMIN B5 DEFICIENCY

Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) is essential to many reactions in all forms of life, including plants and animals. Vitamin B5 is required for the breakdown of fats and carbohydrates, maintenance of a healthy digestive system, production of red blood cells, sex, and stress-related hormones. While severe vitamin B5 deficiencies are very rare, imbalances may cause fatigue, depression, irritability, nausea, and upper respiratory infections.

VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY

VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is required for the normal functioning of the brain, nervous and digestive systems, as well as red blood cell formation. It is involved in DNA synthesis, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolism. Slight imbalances in vitamin B-12 can lead to anemia, fatigue, stomach inflammation, and affect the nervous system.

VITAMIN B6 DEFICIENCY

VITAMIN B6 DEFICIENCY

Vitamin B6 (and its derivative, pyridoxal 5\'-phosphate, PLP) are involved in many important processes, including protein metabolism, normal functioning of immune and nervous systems, production of hemoglobin, and maintenance of normal levels of homocysteine. Even slight imbalances in vitamin B6 levels are linked to many conditions. Symptoms of a vitamin B6 imbalance include nerve inflammation, irritability, depression, dermatitis, cracked and sore lips, inflamed tongue and mouth, and confusion.

VITAMIN B7 DEFICIENCY

VITAMIN B7 DEFICIENCY

Vitamin B7 (biotin) is essential for the normal function of the nervous system as well as the maintenance of normal skin and mucous membranes, activating metabolism in the hair roots and fingernail cells. Symptoms of biotin imbalance include hair loss, brittle fingernails, fatigue, insomnia, depression.

VITAMIN B9 DEFICIENCY

VITAMIN B9 DEFICIENCY

Vitamin B9 (folate) is essential for vital processes such as DNA synthesis, methylation, cell repair and maintenance, protein metabolism, and the formation of blood cells. The terms Folic acid and folate are the same, but folic acid is the type of folate found in vitamin supplements and fortified foods. It is really important for pregnant women, and women trying to conceive. Folate deficiencies are associated with anemia, elevated levels of homocysteine, pregnancy complications, increased risk of cardiovascular diseases.

VITAMIN C DEFICIENCY

VITAMIN C DEFICIENCY

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a water-soluble compound that is critical in many vital processes. Vitamin C is essential for the normal functioning of the immune system, production of red blood cells, healthy connective tissues, blood vessels, bones, teeth, and gums. It is a powerful antioxidant, and it participates in iron absorption. While vitamin C deficiencies are rare in developed countries, higher blood levels of vitamin C have been linked to vitality, longevity, lower risk of death from all causes, including cardiovascular diseases and cancer.

VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY

VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is critical to bone and muscle health, normal functioning of the immune, endocrine, and cardiovascular systems. Vitamin D can be synthesized in the skin upon exposure to sunlight: it is metabolized into its active form and regulates hundreds of genes by binding to vitamin D receptors (VDR).

VITAMIN E DEFICIENCY

VITAMIN E DEFICIENCY

Vitamin E is a fat-soluble nutrient that includes eight different naturally occurring compounds. It acts as an antioxidant, helping to protect cells from the damage caused by free radicals. Vitamin E is essential for healthy skin, as it has anti-inflammatory and photo-protective properties, and it is required for normal functioning of the immune system, blood vessels, and many other organs in the body. Vitamin E imbalances are relatively common and caused by a diet that does not include a sufficient amount of good fats, fat malabsorption disorders, and genetic variations.

VITAMIN K DEFICIENCY

VITAMIN K DEFICIENCY

Vitamin K is a group of fat-soluble vitamins (including phylloquinone, or vitamin K1, phytonadione, and K2, menaquinone) that is essential for promoting healthy blood clotting and healthy bones. Low vitamin K intake increases the risk of excessive bleeding, mineralization of blood vessels, and risk of bone fractures. Genetic variations contribute to vitamin K imbalances, varying in the levels of a specific type of vitamin K.

Minerals

CALCIUM DEFICIENCY

CALCIUM DEFICIENCY

Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the human body, an important part of bones and teeth, and plays a central role in the functions of your nervous system, muscles, controlling blood vessels, and insulin secretion. The human body does not produce calcium, so you must get it through dietary sources. Long-term calcium deficiency can result in bone loss and osteoporosis.

CHOLINE DEFICIENCY

CHOLINE DEFICIENCY

Choline is a water-soluble essential micronutrient which can be made by the body in small amounts but must be consumed in the diet for optimal health benefits. It is involved in many key processes including regulation of homocysteine levels, lipid transport, maintenance of the structural integrity of cell membranes, nerve signaling, metabolism, and normal brain function. Choline deficiency causes muscle damage and abnormal deposition of fat in the liver, which may result in a condition known as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

COENZYME Q10 DEFICIENCY

COENZYME Q10 DEFICIENCY

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a fat-soluble compound primarily synthesized by the body which helps enzymes ensure biochemical reactions run smoothly. It has antioxidant benefits, helps with heart disease, skin appearance, and fine wrinkles. It has been found that taking a combination of nutrients that include CoQ10 benefits patients with cardiovascular disorders, including quicker recovery from surgeries.

COPPER DEFICIENCY

COPPER DEFICIENCY

Copper is an essential trace mineral that plays an important role in the health of blood vessels, nerves, immune system, bones, and connective tissues (including hair, skin, nails, tendons, ligaments). It is also integral for energy production, the formation of collagen, iron absorption. Severe copper deficiency is rare but may be caused by malnutrition, disorders that impair nutrient absorption (Crohn’s disease), some surgeries, and medications.

GLUTATHIONE DEFICIENCY

GLUTATHIONE DEFICIENCY

Glutathione is a powerful antioxidant made by the liver and is required for the proper functioning of other antioxidants such as vitamins C, E, selenium, and carotenoids. It is involved in tissue building, immune response, nutrient metabolism, and regulation of cellular events, including cell proliferation and apoptosis. Glutathione deficiency contributes to oxidative stress, which plays a key role in aging and age-related diseases.

IRON DEFICIENCY

IRON DEFICIENCY

Iron is an essential mineral that our bodies need for many functions and is a key element in the metabolism of almost all living organisms. Iron deficiency is a condition marked by low iron stores in the body.

IRON OVERLOAD

IRON OVERLOAD

Excess iron in the body can lead to fatigue, anorexia, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, headache, weight loss, and shortness of breath. Genetic variations affect how much iron is absorbed leading to iron overload despite normal iron intake.

LUTEIN AND ZEAXANTHIN DEFICIENCY

LUTEIN AND ZEAXANTHIN DEFICIENCY

Lutein and Zeaxanthin (LZ) are yellow to red xanthophylls, a type of naturally occurring carotene (pigment). They are highly concentrated in parts of the human eye. LZ blocks blue light from reaching the underlying layers in the retina, reducing the risk of light-induced oxidative damage that could lead to macular degeneration and cataracts (leading causes of visual impairment and acquired blindness). Lutein and Zeaxanthin also have important antioxidant functions in the body.

LYCOPENE DEFICIENCY

LYCOPENE DEFICIENCY

Lycopene is a bright red carotene (pigment) that gives many fruits and vegetables their red color, like tomatoes, watermelons, papayas, pink grapefruits, red carrots. Studies have linked higher consumption of lycopene-rich foods with reduced risk of many diseases, asthma, some cancers, and age-related vision problems.

MAGNESIUM DEFICIENCY

MAGNESIUM DEFICIENCY

Magnesium is an essential mineral involved in energy metabolism, nerve control, neurotransmitter release, and blood pressure regulation. It is also necessary for proper muscle function, strong bones, and good heart health. In the long term, magnesium deficiency has been associated with a high risk of osteoporosis, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and insulin sensitivity.

PHOSPHORUS DEFICIENCY

PHOSPHORUS DEFICIENCY

Phosphorus is an essential mineral that plays a role in cell signaling, energy production, digestion, hormonal balance, proper nutrient utilization, along with muscle and nerve functioning. Serious dietary phosphorus deficiency is uncommon. Symptoms of phosphorus deficiency include weak bones, stiff joints, numbness, weakness, loss of appetite, anxiety.

SELENIUM DEFICIENCY

SELENIUM DEFICIENCY

Selenium is an essential trace mineral that plays an important role in the healthy functions of the reproductive system, immune system, and thyroid gland. It is also a powerful antioxidant that acts alongside vitamin C, vitamin E, and glutathione. Lifestyle factors that contribute to selenium imbalances include smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, stress, oral contraception, and auto-immune conditions (such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, celiac disease).

ZINC DEFICIENCY

ZINC DEFICIENCY

Zinc is an essential trace mineral that is needed for all forms of life. Zinc is required for many regulatory, catalytic, and structural processes in the body. It plays an important role in the healthy functioning of the immune system, wound healing, cell division, and protein synthesis. Zinc deficiency has been linked to impaired immune system function, increased colds and infections, diarrhea, loss of appetite, delayed wound healing, hair loss, taste abnormalities, and mental lethargy.