ADDICTIONS

Addictions involve complex interactions between brain circuits, genetics, the environment, and a multitude of other factors. People with a high addiction risk use substances or engage in behaviors that become compulsive and often continue despite harmful consequences.

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Addictions

ALCOHOL AND NICOTINE CO-DEPENDENCE

ALCOHOL AND NICOTINE CO-DEPENDENCE

Alcohol and nicotine co-dependence is the result of being addicted to both alcohol and nicotine. This dependence is extremely dangerous due to the many interactions between the two substances, as well as how easy it is to find them.

ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE

ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE

Alcoholism, also known as Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD), is a term used when the consumption of alcohol manifests in mental or physical health problems. Certain genetic traits can increase or lower ones’ chance of alcohol dependence.

ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE - AGE AT ONSET

ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE - AGE AT ONSET

Alcoholism, also known as Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD), is a term used when the consumption of alcohol manifests in mental or physical health problems. A high predisposition to AUD will cause the development of alcohol dependence to be more likely to begin at the onset of alcohol consumption.

ALCOHOLIC CHRONIC PANCREATITIS

ALCOHOLIC CHRONIC PANCREATITIS

Pancreatitis is characterized by the inflammation of the pancreas, which causes it to function incorrectly. Due to it’s chronic nature, this condition permanently affects the condition of the pancreas. This disease has been shown to be hereditary, meaning genetics is an important factor to consider when discussing alcoholic chronic pancreatitis.

COFFEE CONSUMPTION

COFFEE CONSUMPTION

Coffee is one of the primary sources of caffeine and one of the most consumed drinks worldwide. Most people who drink coffee every morning forget about its potential health benefits and risks. Coffee is rich in caffeine, Vitamin B2, and Magnesium.

CANNABIS DEPENDENCE

CANNABIS DEPENDENCE

Cannabis is a plant that holds psychoactive and relaxing properties. The principal compound within the plant is THC, which gives the users the feeling of being “high” by altering mood and cognition.

CANNABIS USE - INITIATION

CANNABIS USE - INITIATION

Cannabis is a plant that holds psychoactive and relaxing properties. The principal compound within the plant is THC, which gives the users the feeling of being “high” by altering mood and cognition. One’s genetic predisposition to cannabis is an important factor in their choice to begin using it.

COCAINE DEPENDENCE

COCAINE DEPENDENCE

Cocaine is a stimulant that causes increased levels of alertness, attention, and energy. Becoming dependent on cocaine means that after frequent periods of usage, the person needs to consume cocaine to feel normal regularly. As well, the user may become desensitized, requiring higher doses to achieve the desirable effect.

COFFEE CONSUMPTION

COFFEE CONSUMPTION

Coffee is one of the primary sources of caffeine and one of the most consumed drinks worldwide. Most people who drink coffee every morning forget about its potential health benefits and risks. Coffee is rich in caffeine, Vitamin B2, and Magnesium.

COFFEE CONSUMPTION - CUPS PER DAY

COFFEE CONSUMPTION - CUPS PER DAY

While drinking coffee at low to moderate levels (1-5 cups a day) can be beneficial, exceeding it can lead to great harm, including possibly getting withdrawal symptoms if one\\\'s coffee intake is cut off. Keeping an eye on your coffee consumption can certainly help, but it is also worth examining your genetic predisposition towards excessive coffee consumption.

GAMBLING

GAMBLING

Gambling is the wagering of money or other such goods on a game of chance, typically with the intent of winning money in the process. Gambling produces norepinephrine, a chemical that is secreted when the body is under a higher amount of stress, arousal, or thrill.

METHADONE DOSE IN OPIOID DEPENDENCE

METHADONE DOSE IN OPIOID DEPENDENCE

Methadone, also commonly sold as Dolophine, is an opioid pain reliever used to manage moderate to low pain. It is commonly used to treat and manage the symptoms of opioid addiction and is commonly given via a prescription.

NICOTINE GLUCOURONIDATION

NICOTINE GLUCOURONIDATION

Nicotine cravings are largely caused by the speed at which the body metabolizes nicotine. This speed depends mainly on the glucuronidation pathway, which allows for nicotine metabolization. Your genetics make up a large part of how efficient it is.

NICOTINE USE

NICOTINE USE

Nicotine is a naturally occurring stimulant found most commonly in tobacco. On its own, nicotine is not overtly harmful, other than its addictive qualities. However, since it is most commonly consumed as a component of tobacco, it can hook a user on tobacco, which causes heavy lung damage alongside many other consequences.

OPIOID SENSITIVITY

OPIOID SENSITIVITY

One’s sensitivity to opioids is strongly influenced by genetics. Being overly sensitive to opioids vastly increases the risk of habit-forming use, as well as addiction. This can create long term damage, including a hormonal imbalance in both men and women.

SMOKING CESSATION

SMOKING CESSATION

Smoking cessation is the quitting of smoking, primarily in regards to tobacco. Due to the nicotine contained within tobacco, quitting is considered difficult, often inducing heavy cravings and withdrawal symptoms. There is a genetic component to quitting - some have an easier time than others.

SMOKING CESSATION IN CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

SMOKING CESSATION IN CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung disease that causes long-term breathing problems, as well as poor airflow. One of the biggest contributing factors to COPD is the inhalation of tobacco smoke. Common symptoms of COPD include shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing, and chest tightness.

SMOKING INITIATION - AGE

SMOKING INITIATION - AGE

Studies have shown that an early starting age for smoking is something you can inherit from your parents. This means that whether or not you will begin smoking at a young age is, to some degree, contained within your very own genes.

SMOKING INITIATION

SMOKING INITIATION

Studies have shown that an early starting age for smoking is something you can inherit from your parents. As well, starting from a young age increases the likelihood of consistent smoking patterns - also known as an “ever regular” smoker.

SMOKING QUANTITY - CIGARETTES PER DAY

SMOKING QUANTITY - CIGARETTES PER DAY

Any amount of smoking can lead to nicotine addiction - even light smoking. Light smoking is typically defined as smoking up to thirty-nine cigarettes a week, and is typically done socially and paired with alcohol use. One’s tendency towards cigarette use is in large part determined by their genetics.